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SEEDS: The Strategic Evlolution of ESE Data Standards
National Aeronautical Space Administration
San Diego State University

Working Group
What is SEEDS?

SEEDS is NASA’s Strategy for Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS). The primary goal of the NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) standards process is to facilitate interoperability among components of the ESE network of data systems. Under the ESE, the Strategy for Evolution of ESE Data Systems (SEEDS) has instituted a process of peer review for standards adoption used by NASA funded Earth science activities. An important motivation underlying the process is a realization that documentation of established practices used by and targeted to particular science measurement data sets will enable greater flexibility and interoperability among data systems.(http://www.earth.nasa.gov/)

SEEDS Vision
REASoN Project Goals
This REASoN project will follow SEEDS standards and suggestions to assist the USBP, SDPD, and other cooperating agencies having border security and homeland defense responsibilities, in establishing and maintaining a unifying exchange and sharing framework of remotely sensed imagery and GIS layers. These agencies are actively seeking such a system. Under a web-based spatial decision support system, multiple agencies can rapidly share and exchange their GIS databases and remotely sensed imagery for application to multiple homeland security tasks.

Such information exchange is essential to pre-emergency planning, critical first response actions, relief efforts, and community recovery. Furthermore, such information can greatly enhance daily operations and cooperation among agencies in meeting homeland defense responsibilities. Exploratory exchanges of GIS and remotely sensed imagery of limited scope demonstrated that significant benefits accrue to agencies involved with border security, law enforcement, disaster response (forest fires), and humanitarian rescues.

Standards and Interface Protocols
This project seeks to establish and implement a set of standards and interface protocols that will allow rapid exchange of geo-spatial data among participating agencies. By utilizing a standardized web mapping interface (OGC Web Map Server Interfaces Implementation Specification) and XML-based metadata frameworks (ISO 19115), individual participating agencies can implement their own data systems and services while maintaining an aggregated system-wide interoperability through multiple data warehouses and web-based decision support systems.
Levels of Services
Users will be able to access on-line mapping facilities containing extensive imagery and geo-spatial data sets, access spatial analysis tools and perform spatial analyses, and query high quality remote sensing data via a standard web browser utilizing wireless networking technologies (IEEE 802.11b, Wi-Fi standard). The spatial data products and hardware prototype technologies provided by the project answer time urgent and high priority needs of the USBP and sister participating agencies. SDSU and its participating partners are committed to the timely development and transfer of the needed geo-spatial technologies and products.
Software Reuse
Parts of the web-based GIS and SDSS developed in this project require development of Java applets for image processing and display. Software will be developed using modularized Java applets that can be reused in other future software applications. Java was specifically selected because it is an object oriented, open source language designed for the distributed network environment, such as the Internet and Intranet. The Java code is capable of providing advanced image processing required for geo-spatial analysis such as image change detection. Code modules developed during current and previous NASA ARC projects at SDSU support the software reuse principle. Code modules developed during this and follow-on SDSS projects will be available for reuse.
Technology Infusion and Evolution Strategy
A three-phase strategy will be used:
  1. Adopt current software packages, ArcIMS, Image Web Server, Java applets, and wireless communication technology (3G, Wi-Fi, and Wi-Fi5).
  2. Customize these packages and develop specific functions for USBP and the tasks of homeland security.
  3. Migrate the current development to comprehensive GIS web services frameworks (by using SOAP, WSDL, and UUDI) and the next generation of wireless communication technologies (4G) to provide a comprehensive, reliable, and secured SDSS.
Data Format and Content
The proposed data format is ESRI Shapefiles and the choice of databases is Spatial Database Engine (SDE). Shapefiles are an industry standard GIS format, that is forecast to remain a standard for at least the next decade. It is the standard format used by all participating agencies of this project. Shapefiles can be used directly in the proposed web mapping service package (ArcIMS and Image Web Server) without any pre-processing or conversion procedures.

The metadata format adopted by this project is the current FGDC metadata standard and XML-based ISO 19115 (International standard) implemented through ESRI’s ArcCatalog and ArcIMS Metadata Server. FGDC’s metadata standard is the leading standard currently in the GIS community.

The proposed SDSS will support standard remotely sensed image formats including, but not limited to HDF, BMP, BSQ, BIL, BIP, GRID, IMAGINE (img), JPEG
National Image Transfer Format (NITF), Sun rasterfiles, TIFF, TIFF/LZW compressed, and ECW compression. These formats are widely accepted industry formats supported by the leading image processing and GIS software applications. These imagery formats are the standard formats commonly used by all participating agencies of this project.

Interface Standards
The principal external interface adopted in this research will be web-based communication protocols and interfaces. The data warehouse and its associated metadata will be based on the Z39.50 protocol to provide the functions of searching, indexing and query of metadata from other systems or outside clearinghouse nodes. The data warehouse nodes will join FGDC’s National Spatial Data Infrastructure nodes by implementing the ISITE software and Z39.50 protocol on the data warehouse server.

Web mapping services will be based on the OpenGIS Web Map Server Interface Implementation Specification for sharing and exchanging on-line mapping services and remote sensing imagery display functions. The adoption of the OpenGIS WMS will ensure interoperability of web map servers and open accessibility from other programs or servers.

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